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When Your Child Has Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral infection in children. It can cause mouth sores and a painless rash on the hands, feet, or buttocks. HFMD can be easily spread from 1 person to another. It occurs more often in children younger than 10 years old. But anyone can get it. HFMD is often mistaken for strep throat because the symptoms of both conditions are similar. HFMD can cause some discomfort, but it’s not a serious problem. Most cases can easily be managed and treated at home.
What causes hand, foot, and mouth disease?
HFMD is usually caused by the coxsackievirus. It can also be caused by other viruses in the same family as coxsackievirus. Your child may have caught HFMD in 1 of these ways:
Breathing infected air. The virus can enter the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks.
Contact with contaminated items. Some things may have traces of stool from an infected person. This can occur when an infected person doesn’t wash his or her hands after having a bowel movement or changing a diaper.
Contact with fluid from the blisters. The blisters are part of the rash. This type of transmission is rare.
What are the symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease?
Symptoms usually appear 24 to 72 hours after contact. They include:
Rash of small, red bumps or blisters on the hands, feet, or buttocks
Mouth sores that often occur on the gums, tongue, inside the cheeks, and in the back of the throat (mouth sores may not occur in some children)
A rash over the rest of the body
Loss of appetite
Pain when swallowing
How is hand, foot, and mouth disease diagnosed?
HFMD is diagnosed by how the rash and mouth sores look. The healthcare provider will ask about your child’s symptoms and health history. He or she will also examine your child. You will be told if any tests are needed. These are done to rule out other infections.
How is hand, foot, and mouth disease treated?
There is no specific treatment for HFMD. But there are things you can do at home to help relieve some symptoms. The illness lasts about 7 to 10 days. Your child is no longer contagious 24 hours after the fever is gone.
Give your child ibuprofen or acetaminophen to treat pain or discomfort. Or, use the medicine prescribed by the healthcare provider for pain. Talk with your child's provider about the dose and when to give the medicine (schedule). Do not give ibuprofen to a baby age 6 months or younger. Do not give aspirin to a child with a fever. This can put your child at risk of a serious illness called Reye syndrome.
Liquid antacid can be used 4 times per day. This is used to coat the mouth sores for pain relief. Talk with your child's provider about how much and when to give the medicine to your child:
Children over age 4 can use 1 teaspoon (5ml) as a mouth rinse after meals.
For children under age 4, a parent can place 1/2 teaspoon (2.5ml) in the front of the mouth after meals. Don't use regular mouth rinses. They may sting.
Follow a soft diet with plenty of fluids to prevent too much fluid loss (dehydration). If your child doesn't want to eat solid foods, it's OK for a few days, as long as he or she drinks plenty of fluids.
Give your child cool drinks and frozen treats such as sherbet. These are soothing and easier to take.
Don't give your child citrus juices such as orange juice or lemonade. Don't give your child salty or spicy foods. These may cause more pain in the mouth sores.
When to get medical care
Call the child's provider if your child has any of these:
A mouth sore that doesn’t go away within 14 days
Increased mouth pain
Lack of energy
Signs of infection around the rash or mouth sores, such as pus, fluid leaking, or swelling)
Signs of too much fluid loss, such as very dark or little urine, excessive thirst, dry mouth, dizziness
A fever (see Fever and children below)
Fever and children
Use a digital thermometer to check your child’s temperature. Don’t use a mercury thermometer. There are different kinds and uses of digital thermometers. They include:
Rectal. For children younger than 3 years, a rectal temperature is the most accurate.
Forehead (temporal). This works for children age 3 months and older. If a child under 3 months old has signs of illness, this can be used for a first pass. The provider may want to confirm with a rectal temperature.
Ear (tympanic). Ear temperatures are accurate after 6 months of age, but not before.
Armpit (axillary). This is the least reliable but may be used for a first pass to check a child of any age with signs of illness. The provider may want to confirm with a rectal temperature.
Mouth (oral). Don’t use a thermometer in your child’s mouth until he or she is at least 4 years old.
Use the rectal thermometer with care. Follow the product maker’s directions for correct use. Insert it gently. Label it and make sure it’s not used in the mouth. It may pass on germs from the stool. If you don’t feel OK using a rectal thermometer, ask the healthcare provider what type to use instead. When you talk with any healthcare provider about your child’s fever, tell him or her which type you used.
Below are guidelines to know if your young child has a fever. Your child’s healthcare provider may give you different numbers for your child. Follow your provider’s specific instructions.
Fever readings for a baby under 3 months old:
Fever readings for a child age 3 months to 36 months (3 years):
Rectal, forehead, or ear: 102°F (38.9°C) or higher
Armpit: 101°F (38.3°C) or higher
Call the healthcare provider in these cases:
Repeated temperature of 104°F (40°C) or higher in a child of any age
Fever of 100.4 or higher in baby younger than 3 months
Fever that lasts more than 24 hours in a child under age 2
Fever that lasts for 3 days in a child age 2 or older
How can hand, foot, and mouth disease be prevented?
Follow these steps to keep your child from passing HFMD on to others:
Teach your child to wash his or her hands with soap and warm water often. Handwashing is very important before eating or handling food, after using the bathroom, and after touching the rash. A child is very contagious during the first week of the illness. He or she can still be contagious for days to weeks after the illness goes away.
Your child should stay home while he or she is sick. Ask your child's healthcare provider how long your child should avoid school, daycare, and playing with others.
Don't let your child share cups, utensils, or napkins. Don't let them share personal items such as towels and toothbrushes.
Online Medical Reviewer:
Barry Zingman MD
Online Medical Reviewer:
John Hanrahan MD
Online Medical Reviewer:
L Renee Watson MSN RN
Date Last Reviewed:
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